Target 4. Threatened species are recovering, genetic diversity is being maintained and human-wildlife conflict is being managed
Ensure urgent management actions to halt human induced extinction of known threatened species and for the recovery and conservation of species, in particular threatened species, to significantly reduce extinction risk, as well as to maintain and restore the genetic diversity within and between populations of native, wild and domesticated species to maintain their adaptive potential, including through in situ and ex situ conservation and sustainable management practices, and effectively manage human-wildlife interactions to minimize human-wildlife conflict for coexistence.
Following are the guidance notes prepared by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) for Target 4
Though some extinctions are the result of natural processes, human actions have greatly increased current extinction rates and risk. The global species extinction rate is at least tens to hundreds of times higher than the average over the past 10 million years, and the rate is increasing. About 1 million species are currently threatened with extinction. The global increase in extinction and extinction risk is also contributing to the decline of genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is critical for the long-term stability, adaptability and resilience of biodiversity, both at the species and ecosystem levels, and it supports the continued provision of nature’s contributions to people. Various species-specific management interventions will be needed to ensure the conservation of species.
This target has three distinct but related components:
(a) management actions need to be taken to halt human-induced extinctions by 2030 and to reduce extinction risk, in particular for threatened species.
(b) management actions need to be taken to maintain and restore genetic diversity, among all species.,
(c) action needs to be taken to manage human-wildlife interactions to minimize human-wildlife conflict.
To address these three components, this target identifies several elements that need to be taken into account:
- Management actions – Management actions focused on the recovery of threatened species could include species reintroductions, species recovery actions (such as vaccinations, supplementary feeding, provision of breeding sites, planting and protection of seedlings) and ex situ conservation where needed. Management actions for the conservation of genetic resources within species, including for crops and livestock and their wild relatives, include ex situ conservation and in situ conservation. For domesticated species the latter includes on-farm conservation.
- Halt human-induced extinction and reduce extinction risk – A fully recovered species is one that is viable and that fulfills its ecological roles in the ecosystems throughout its native range. Further, conservation refers to the protection, care, management and maintenance of ecosystems, habitats, wildlife species and populations, within or outside of their natural environments, in order to safeguard the natural conditions for their long-term permanence.
- Known threatened species – This target relates specifically to known threatened species. Different approaches are used to assess the threat status of species, and many countries have their own lists of threatened species. Globally, IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species lists more than 42,100 species as being threatened.
- Maintain and restore genetic diversity – The genetic diversity of wild species provides the variation essential to maintain ecosystem stability and ensure benefits to people, and supports species survival and adaptation, linking explicitly to ecosystems and species.
- Wild and domestic species – Actions should be taken to maintain the genetic diversity of both wild and domestic species.
- Manage human-wildlife interactions and conflict – Some types of human-wildlife interactions can be positive or neutral for people and biodiversity. However, some interactions can lead to conflicts, including over resources and space, resulting in adverse effects on human life, health, well-being and/or livelihoods. As a result of those actions and threats, humans may damage or eliminate wildlife, either intentionally or unintentionally. Many types of human-wildlife conflicts can be mitigated or avoided through appropriate planning, management and compensation measures.
- Actions to reach Target 4 should take into account all of the considerations for implementation identified in section C of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.
- Progress towards this target will directly support the attainment of Goal A of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. This target complements targets 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
- Target 4 addresses issues previously addressed in Aichi Biodiversity targets 12 and 13.
- Elements of Target 4 are also addressed in the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals, including targets 2.5 and 15.5
- What species are currently threatened or at risk of extinction in your country? Which species are near threatened? Where are threatened species located in your county? Which species are likely to go extinct without urgent action?
- What are the main threats to the threatened species? Which can be addressed through management actions, and which require broader approaches?
- What are the opportunities for and constraints to preventing species from becoming extinct? What are the potential ecological, economic and social costs and benefits of preventing the extinction of certain species?
- What are the sources of human-wildlife conflict in the country? How are these currently being addressed? How effective have these measures been? Who are the actors affected? How can they be involved, and their needs addressed? What are the trade-offs to consider?
- What additional resources (financial, human and technical) will be required to take action on this target? How can additional resources be raised? What are possible sources?
The monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework identifies the following indicators for this target:
- A.3 Red list Index
- A.4 The proportion of populations within species with an effective population size > 500
- Living Planet Index
- Number of plant and animal genetic resources secured in medium- or long-term conservation facilities
- Trends in effective and sustainable management of human-wildlife conflict and coexistence
- Green Status of Species Index
- Conservation status of species listed in the CITES Appendices has stabilized or improved
- Species threat abatement and restoration metric
- Changing status of evolutionary distinct and globally endangered species (EDGE Index)
- Percentage of threatened species that are improving in status
- Number of CMS daughter agreements
- Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk of extinction
- Red List Index (wild relatives of domesticated animals)
- Rate of invasive alien species establishment
Note from the Secretariat: This guidance material provides an overview of the target by briefly introducing key terms, highlighting some of the implications for national target setting, and providing key points and guiding questions for consideration as part of national target-setting exercises. It also identifies the adopted indicators to monitor progress and resources that could assist with national target setting and implementation. This material should be considered a work in progress, and it will be periodically updated with inputs from Parties and partner organizations in the light of experiences with its use. This information is meant to serve as a resource that Parties and others may wish to consider as they implement the Global Biodiversity Framework. It does not replace or qualify decision 15/4 or 15/5.