Target 19. Financial resources increased to $ 200 billion per year, including $ 30 billion through international finance
Substantially and progressively increase the level of financial resources from all sources, in an effective, timely and easily accessible manner, including domestic, international, public and private resources, in accordance with Article 20 of the Convention, to implement national biodiversity strategies and action plans, mobilizing at least $200 billion per year by 2030, including by:
(a) Increasing total biodiversity-related international financial resources from developed countries, including official development assistance, and from countries that voluntarily assume obligations of developed country Parties, to developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition, to at least $20 billion per year by 2025, and to at least $30 billion per year by 2030;
(b) Significantly increasing domestic resource mobilization, facilitated by the preparation and implementation of national biodiversity finance plans or similar instruments according to national needs, priorities and circumstances;
(c) Leveraging private finance, promoting blended finance, implementing strategies for raising new and additional resources, and encouraging the private sector to invest in biodiversity, including through impact funds and other instruments;
(d) Stimulating innovative schemes such as payment for ecosystem services, green bonds, biodiversity offsets and credits, and benefit-sharing mechanisms, with environmental and social safeguards;
(e) Optimizing co-benefits and synergies of finance targeting the biodiversity and climate crises;
(f) Enhancing the role of collective actions, including by indigenous peoples and local communities, Mother Earth Centric Actions and non-market-based approaches, including community- based natural resource management and civil society cooperation and solidarity aimed at the conservation of biodiversity;
(g) Enhancing the effectiveness, efficiency and transparency of resource provision and use.
Mother Earth-centric actions: Ecocentric and rights-based approach enabling the implementation of actions towards harmonic and complementary relationships between peoples and nature, promoting the continuity of all living beings and their communities and ensuring the non-commodification of environmental functions of Mother Earth.
The Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework will be implemented primarily through activities at the national and subnational levels, with supporting actions at the regional and global levels. However, the capacity for implementing the Convention in terms of human, technical and financial resources is limited in many countries, especially in developing countries. Together with other means of implementation, the mobilization of adequate financial resources is critical for achieving the goals and targets of the Framework.
The main focus of this target is increasing the amount of financial resources for the implementation of national biodiversity strategies and actions to $200 per year by 2030. To accomplish this, the target sets a number of distinct elements:
- From all sources – The resources mobilized for implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans should come from all sources. This includes domestic, international, public and private sources.
- Timely and easily accessible manner – Bearing in mind the time frame covered by the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, the resources to support its implementation need to be made available in a time and manner that they can effectively used by Parties. This element of the target links to the final element of the target calling for the effectiveness, efficiency and transparency of resource provision and use to be enhanced;
- International financial resources – The target specifies that international financial resources provided by developed countries, and countries that voluntarily assume obligations of developed country Parties, and to developing countries, should be increased. By 2025 these funds should reach $20 billion per year, and by 2030 they should reach $30 billion per year. Official development assistance is identified in the target as one means of accomplshing this. The target further specifies the need to pay particular attention to the needs of the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition,
- Domestic resource mobilization – The target calls for domestic resource mobilization to increase signigantly and specifies that this increase can be facilitated through the preparation and implementation of national biodiversity finance plans or similar instruments
- Private sector finance – The target identifies different mechanisms through which the private sector could contribute to the implementation of national biodiversity strategies and actions. These include blended finance, developing funding strategies, impact funds and other instruments that encourage private sector involvement.
- Innovative finance schemes – The target identifies innovative finance schemes, such as payment for ecosystem services, green bonds, biodiversity offsets and credits, and benefit-sharing mechanisms, as a means of mobilization resources for implementation. This element also notes that such shcemes should have environmental and social safeguards.
- Synergies with climate finance – Biodiversity loss and climate change and linked societal challenges. The resources mobilized to address these challenges are potentially synergistic and offer opportunities for efficiencies which should be considered in the actions to reach this target.
- Collective action – Collective action refers to actions taken by groups of people towards a common goal or objective. Many groups, including indigenous peoples and local communities, act for biodiversity. While these actions do not necessarily generate resources, they do have value, which should be accounted for as part of this target. This also applies to Mother Earth- centric actions and other non-market-based approaches to biodiversity.
- Actions to reach Target 19 should take into account all of the considerations for implementation identified in section C of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.
- This target directly relates to Goal D of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. It will also indirectly support the attainment of the other goals of the framework by ensuring that the necessary resources are available for implementation. This target will also indirectly support the attainment of all targets in the framework. Conversely, progress towards this target would be supported by actions to reach targets 14, 15 and 18.
- Elements of this target were previously addressed by Aichi Biodiversity Target 20.
- Elements of Target 8 are also addressed in the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals, including targets 1.a, 10.b, 15.6, 15.b and 17.3.
- What financial resources is your country providing to developing countries through internal financial resource flows? How much of this is provided as official development assistance? How could this be increased?
- What is the current amount of biodiversity financing available in the country? What percentage of this funding comes from national budgets? What percentage comes from other sources?
- What financial resources are being provided by private sources in your country? How can these be leveraged?
- What are the main sources of biodiversity financing in the country? What are possible additional funding sources?
- What financial resources will be required to implement your country’s national biodiversity strategy and action plan? How can additional funds be raised? Who are the stakeholders that may be involved?
The monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework identifies the following indicator(s) for this target:
- D.1 International public funding, including official development assistance for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems
- D.2 Domestic public funding of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems
- D.3 Private funding (domestic and international) of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems
- Amount of funding provided through the Global Environment Facility and allocated to the biodiversity focal area
- Foreign direct investment, official development assistance and South-South cooperation as a proportion of total domestic budget
- Amount and composition of biodiversity-related finance reported to the OECD Creditor reporting system
- Dollar value of financial and technical assistance (including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation) committed to developing countries
- Dollar value of all resources made available to strengthen statistical capacity in developing countries
- Amount of biodiversity-related philanthropic funding
- Proportion of total research budget allocated to research in the field of marine technology
- Total amount of approved funding for developing countries to promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies
- Number of countries (and number of instruments) with payments for ecosystem services programmes
- Reports of the CBD panel on resource mobilization established by COP14
- OECD (2020), A Comprehensive Overview of Global Biodiversity Finance.
- The Paulson Institute, The Nature Conservancy, and the Cornell Atkinson Center for Sustainability (2020): Financing Nature. Closing the global biodiversity financing gap.
- OECD (2022), "Biodiversity and development finance: Main trends, 2011-20", OECD Development Co-operation Working Papers, No. 110, OECD Publishing, Paris.
Tools and guidance
Note from the Secretariat: This guidance material provides an overview of the target by briefly introducing key terms, highlighting some of the implications for national target setting, and providing key points and guiding questions for consideration as part of national target-setting exercises. It also identifies the adopted indicators to monitor progress and resources that could assist with national target setting and implementation. This material should be considered a work in progress, and it will be periodically updated with inputs from Parties and partner organizations in the light of experiences with its use. This information is meant to serve as a resource that Parties and others may wish to consider as they implement the Global Biodiversity Framework. It does not replace or qualify decision 15/4 or 15/5.