Target 14. The multiple values of biodiversity are integrated into decision-making at all levels
Article 6 (b) of the Convention calls upon Parties, in accordance with their particular conditions and capabilities, to integrate, as far as possible and as appropriate, the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans, programmes and policies. Such “biodiversity mainstreaming” seeks to ensure that the multiple biodiversity values are duly taken into account in decision- and policy-making of private and public actors, across governments, economic sectors and society more broadly. As many (if not most) activities that rely on biodiversity or have an impact on biodiversity are outside of the remit of biodiversity policies, implementing this target is critical for implementing the objectives of the Convention. Nevertheless, the multiple values of biodiversity are not widely reflected in decision-making. Integrating and reflecting the contribution of biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides in relevant strategies, policies, programmes, and reporting systems is an important element in ensuring that the diverse values of biodiversity and the opportunities derived from its conservation and sustainable use are recognized and reflected in decision-making
The aim of this target is to ensure that the values of biodiversity are fully reflected or mainstreamed in all relevant decision-making frameworks so that it is given proper attention in decision-making, leading to alignment of all activities, and of all financial flows, with the goals and targets of the framework. The target has several specific elements:
- Multiple values – Biodiversity underpins a wide range of services that support economies, food production systems, secure living conditions and human health. In addition, biodiversity is central to many cultures, spiritual beliefs and worldviews and has intrinsic value. As such, biodiversity has multiple values, some of which can be quantified in monetary terms and others that are more abstract.
- Policies, regulations, processes, strategies, assessments and national accounting – Various decision-making frameworks guide activities at global, national and local scales and in the private and public sector. However, these frameworks often do not appropriately account for biodiversity or its values, and therefore these are not always appropriately reflected in relevant processes, including regulations, planning and development processes, poverty eradication strategies, strategic environmental assessments, environmental impact assessments and, as appropriate, national accounting
- All of government and sectors – Action to fully integrate biodiversity and its multiple values should be taken across all levels of government and across sectors, thus reflecting the fact that many decision-making frameworks, processes and policies that are relevant for biodiversity take place at different levels of public and private decision-making. The target further specifies that a specific focus should be given to those sectors that have significant impacts on biodiversity and that public and private fiscal and financial flows should be gradually aligned with the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework
- Actions to reach Target 14 should take into account all of the considerations for implementation identified in section C of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.
- This Target supports the attainment of goals B and D of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. Progress towards this target would also help to reach all targets of the Framework by ensuring that biodiversity and its multiple values are reflected in decision-making across all levels of society. However, it would have particularly important impacts on targets 15, 16 and 18
- Elements of this target were previously addressed by Aichi Biodiversity Target 2.
- Elements of Target 14 are also addressed in the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals, including Target 15.9.
- What are the key national planning instruments and processes in place? How is biodiversity and its multiple values being reflected in these? What are the opportunities and constraints for doing so?
- What gaps, in terms of instruments, legislation and processes, exist in reflecting the values of biodiversity in decision-making processes? How could these gaps be addressed?
- How are the business and financial sectors being encouraged to reflect biodiversity and its multiple values in decision-making processes? How effective has this been? How could it be strengthened? What are the gaps/needs that exist?
- What sectors are having significant impacts on biodiversity? How is biodiversity reflected in any associated decision-making processes? How effective has this been? How could it be strengthened? What are the gaps/needs that exist?
- What are the potential ecological, economic, and social benefits and costs of integrating biodiversity and its multiple values into relevant decision-making processes? Who are the actors that may be affected? How can they be involved, and their needs addressed? What are the trade-offs to consider?
- What additional resources (financial, human and technical) will be required to reach this target? How can additional resources be raised? What are possible sources?
The monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework identifies the following indicators for this target:
- Number of countries with implementation of the System of Environmental Economic Accounting
- Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production (HANPP)
- CO2 emission per unit of value added
- Change in water-use efficiency over time
- IPBES (2022): Methodological assessment regarding the diverse conceptualization of multiple values of nature and its benefits, including biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services.
- CBD (2017). Global state of the application of biodiversity-inclusive impact assessment. CBD/SBSTTA/21/INF/13.
- UK Treasury (ed.) (2021): The Economics of Biodiversity. The Dasgupta Review.
- OECD (2018). Mainstreaming Biodiversity for Sustainable Development.
Tools and guidance
- CBD decision XIII/3 (2016): Strategic actions to enhance the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, including with respect to mainstreaming and the integration of biodiversity within and across sectors.
- CBD decision 14/3 (2018): Mainstreaming of biodiversity in the energy and mining, infrastructure, manufacturing and
- CBD decision 15/7 (2022): Resource mobilization.
- CBD decision 15/12 (Annex) (2022): Plan of Action on Subnational Governments, Cities and Other Local Authorities for Biodiversity (2023–2030).
- CBD Decision 14/16(2018) Methodological Guidance Concerning The Contributions Of Indigenous Peoples And Local Communities
- CBD Decision 15/17 (2022): Further work on the Long-term Strategic Approach to Biodiversity Mainstreaming
- United Nations System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA).
Note from the Secretariat: This guidance material provides an overview of the target by briefly introducing key terms, highlighting some of the implications for national target setting, and providing key points and guiding questions for consideration as part of national target-setting exercises. It also identifies the adopted indicators to monitor progress and resources that could assist with national target setting and implementation. This material should be considered a work in progress, and it will be periodically updated with inputs from Parties and partner organizations in the light of experiences with its use. This information is meant to serve as a resource that Parties and others may wish to consider as they implement the Global Biodiversity Framework. It does not replace or qualify decision 15/4 or 15/5.