Global Biodiversity Framework Targets

Target 11. Nature’s contributions to people are restored, maintained and enhanced

Restore, maintain and enhance nature’s contributions to people, including ecosystem functions and services, such as the regulation of air, water and climate, soil health, pollination and reduction of disease risk, as well as protection from natural hazards and disasters, through nature-based solutions and/or ecosystem-based approaches for the benefit of all people and nature.

Following are the guidance notes prepared by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) for Target 11

Nature’s contributions to people, a concept similar to and inclusive of ecosystem services, refers to all the contributions from biodiversity to people’s well-being or quality of life. These contributions take various forms, including material contributions, regulating services and other non-material contributions including spiritually and culturally. As a result of the ongoing decline of biodiversity, nature’s contributions to people are also in decline, with serious implications for human well-being and social cohesion. The restoration, maintenance and enhancement of nature’s contributions to people provides an important rational for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

This target calls for the range of nature’s contributions to people to be restored, maintained or enhanced by 2030 and places specific emphasis on the regulation of air, water and climate, soil health, pollination and reduction of disease risk, as well as protection from natural hazards and disasters. To accomplish this the target identifies nature-based solutions and/or ecosystem-based approaches as a specific approach to reaching this objective.

  • Nature-based solutions and/or ecosystem-based approaches - Nature-based solutions can be defined as actions to protect, conserve, restore, sustainably use and manage natural or modified terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems, which address social, economic and environmental challenges effectively and adaptively, while simultaneously providing human well-being, ecosystem services and resilience and biodiversity benefits. Ecosystem-based approaches can be defined as the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services, particularly, as part of an overall strategy to help mitigate and adapt to the adverse effects of climate change.

  • Actions to reach Target 11 should take into account all of the considerations for implementation identified in section C of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.
  • Progress towards this target will support the attainment of goals A and B of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. Progress towards this target will be facilitated through the actions taken to reach the other targets of the Global Biodiversity Framework, in particular those targets addressing the direct drivers of biodiversity, namely targets help to reach targets 235678910 and 12.
  • Elements of Target 11 were previously addressed under Aichi Biodiversity Target 14.  
  • Elements of Target 11 are also addressed in the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals, including targets 1.5 and 15.4

  • How are the contributions of biodiversity recognized in existing national policies, strategies and plans? How can the role of biodiversity be (further) recognised, supported and/or enhanced? What policy tools are in use or need to be considered?
  • What are the opportunities for and constraints to restoring, maintaining and enhancing nature’s contributions to people? Consider potential ecological, economic, and social costs and benefits in specific ecosystems.
  • Who are the actors that may be affected by efforts to restore, maintain and enhance nature’s contributions to people? How can they be involved and their needs addressed? What are the trade-offs to consider?
  • What additional resources (financial, human and technical) will be required to reach this target? How can additional resources be raised? What are possible sources?

The monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework identifies the following indicators for this target:

Headline indicators: 

Component indicators

  • Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population
  • Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, unsafe sanitation and lack of hygiene (exposure to unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) services
  • Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g., PM2.5 and PM10) in cities
  • Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality
  • Level of water stress

Complementary indicators:

  • Air emission accounts
  • Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management
  • Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services
  • Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution (SDG indicator 3.9.1)


Tools and guidance

Note from the Secretariat: This guidance material provides an overview of the target by briefly introducing key terms, highlighting some of the implications for national target setting, and providing key points and guiding questions for consideration as part of national target-setting exercises. It also identifies the adopted indicators to monitor progress and resources that could assist with national target setting and implementation. This material should be considered a work in progress, and it will be periodically updated with inputs from Parties and partner organizations in the light of experiences with its use. This information is meant to serve as a resource that Parties and others may wish to consider as they implement the Global Biodiversity Framework. It does not replace or qualify decision 15/4 or 15/5