Global Biodiversity Framework Targets

Target 10. Areas under agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are managed sustainably

Ensure that areas under agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are managed sustainably, in particular through the sustainable use of biodiversity, including through a substantial increase of the application of biodiversity friendly practices, such as sustainable intensification, agroecological and other innovative approaches, contributing to the resilience and long-term efficiency and productivity of these production systems, and to food security, conserving and restoring biodiversity and maintaining nature’s contributions to people, including ecosystem functions and services.

Following are the guidance notes prepared by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) for Target 10

Agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are globally important production systems that have varying impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity. The variety and variability of animals, plants and microorganisms used in these systems is an important aspect of biodiversity. Further, in many countries, activities associated with these production systems are important elements of human well-being and economic activity. However, the increasing demand for food, fibre and fuel is leading to increasing losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services, making sustainable management in these systems an urgent requirement. On the other hand, sustainable management not only contributes to biodiversity conservation but can also deliver benefits to production systems in terms of ecosystem services such as soil fertility, erosion control, enhanced pollination and reduced pest outbreaks, as well as contributing to the well-being and sustainable livelihoods of people engaged in agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry activities.

The main focus of this target is to ensure that the areas used for agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are managed sustainably. To accomplish this, the target sets out a number of elements that need to be taken into account:

  • Managed sustainably, in particular through the sustainable use of biodiversity – The sustainable use of biodiversity is defined under Article 2 of the Convention as the use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.
  • Biodiversity-friendly practices  Biodiversity-friendly practices are those that help to increase the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of production practices on biodiversity. They largely overlap with practices that make enhanced use of biodiversity on farm to support the productivity and resilience of agriculture. They can take different forms depending on the production systems being considered. For example, sustainable agricultural production may include increases in productivity based on the sustainable management of ecosystem services and functions, diversification of agriculture, agroecological approaches and organic farming, the enhanced use of a diverse range of well-adapted crops and livestock, and their varieties and breeds, and of associated biodiversity in agricultural systems, including pollinators, pest-control organisms and soil organisms that promote nutrient cycling, thereby reducing the need for or replacing chemical inputs. Biodiversity-friendly practices are an important aspect of maintaining the resilience, or the ability of  productive systems to recover from stress or disturbance. They can also help to address the conservation and restoration of biodiversity.
  • Nature’s contributions to people – Nature’s contributions to people (a concept similar to and inclusive of ecosystem functions and services) refers to all the contributions from biodiversity to people’s well-being or quality of life. The sustainable management of agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry is an essential element in ensuring the continued availability of nature’s contributions to people and in particular food security.

  • Actions to reach Target 10 should take into account all of the considerations for the implementation identified in section C of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.
  • This target will contribute to the attainment of goals A and B of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. Further progress towards this target will facilitate the attainment of targets 24678911 and 16. Conversely, the attainment of this target will be facilitated by actions to reach targets 1141719202122 and 23.
  • Target 10 addresses issues previously covered by Aichi Biodiversity targets 6 and 7
  • Elements of Target 10 are also addressed in the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals, including targets 2.3, 2.412.1, 12.214.7 and 15.2.

  • Where are the main areas in the country used for agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry? Which areas are particularly important for biodiversity? Which areas are particularly important for economic reasons?
  • What measures are in place to ensure the sustainable management of agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry? How do these measures promote the use of biodiversity-friendly practices? How effective have these measures been? How could their effectiveness be improved? Which areas are not currently covered by any type of sustainable management?
  • What are the opportunities and constraints to enhancing sustainable management? What are the potential ecological, economic, and social costs and benefits of enhancing sustainable management?
  • What biodiversity-related problems could be addressed through sustainable management? How could sustainable management be used to address the main threats to biodiversity?
  • Who are the actors that may be affected? How can they be involved and their needs addressed? What are the trade-offs to consider?
  • What additional resources (financial, human and technical) will be required to reach the national target? How can additional resources be raised? What are the possible sources for these resources?

The monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework identifies the following indicators for this target:

Headline indicators:

Component indicators:

  • Area of forest under sustainable management: total forest management certification by Forest Stewardship Council and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification
  • Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status

Complementary indicators:

  • Agrobiodiversity Index
  • Changes in soil organic carbon stocks
  • Red List Index (wild relatives of domesticated animals)
  • Red List Index (pollinating species)
  • Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk of extinction
  • Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area


Tools and guidance        

Note from the Secretariat: This guidance material provides an overview of the target by briefly introducing key terms, highlighting some of the implications for national target setting, and providing key points and guiding questions for consideration as part of national target-setting exercises. It also identifies the adopted indicators to monitor progress and resources that could assist with national target setting and implementation. This material should be considered a work in progress, and it will be periodically updated with inputs from Parties and partner organizations in the light of experiences with its use. This information is meant to serve as a resource that Parties and others may wish to consider as they implement the Global Biodiversity Framework. It does not replace or qualify decision 15/4 or 15/5