Target 10. Areas under agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are managed sustainably
Agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are globally important production systems that have varying impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity. The variety and variability of animals, plants and microorganisms used in these systems is an important aspect of biodiversity. Further, in many countries, activities associated with these production systems are important elements of human well-being and economic activity. However, the increasing demand for food, fibre and fuel is leading to increasing losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services, making sustainable management in these systems an urgent requirement. On the other hand, sustainable management not only contributes to biodiversity conservation but can also deliver benefits to production systems in terms of ecosystem services such as soil fertility, erosion control, enhanced pollination and reduced pest outbreaks, as well as contributing to the well-being and sustainable livelihoods of people engaged in agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry activities.
The main focus of this target is to ensure that the areas used for agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are managed sustainably. To accomplish this, the target sets out a number of elements that need to be taken into account:
- Managed sustainably, in particular through the sustainable use of biodiversity – The sustainable use of biodiversity is defined under Article 2 of the Convention as the use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.
- Biodiversity-friendly practices – Biodiversity-friendly practices are those that help to increase the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of production practices on biodiversity. They largely overlap with practices that make enhanced use of biodiversity on farm to support the productivity and resilience of agriculture. They can take different forms depending on the production systems being considered. For example, sustainable agricultural production may include increases in productivity based on the sustainable management of ecosystem services and functions, diversification of agriculture, agroecological approaches and organic farming, the enhanced use of a diverse range of well-adapted crops and livestock, and their varieties and breeds, and of associated biodiversity in agricultural systems, including pollinators, pest-control organisms and soil organisms that promote nutrient cycling, thereby reducing the need for or replacing chemical inputs. Biodiversity-friendly practices are an important aspect of maintaining the resilience, or the ability of productive systems to recover from stress or disturbance. They can also help to address the conservation and restoration of biodiversity.
- Nature’s contributions to people – Nature’s contributions to people (a concept similar to and inclusive of ecosystem functions and services) refers to all the contributions from biodiversity to people’s well-being or quality of life. The sustainable management of agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry is an essential element in ensuring the continued availability of nature’s contributions to people and in particular food security.
- Actions to reach Target 10 should take into account all of the considerations for the implementation identified in section C of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.
- This target will contribute to the attainment of goals A and B of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework. Further progress towards this target will facilitate the attainment of targets 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 16. Conversely, the attainment of this target will be facilitated by actions to reach targets 1, 14, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23.
- Target 10 addresses issues previously covered by Aichi Biodiversity targets 6 and 7
- Elements of Target 10 are also addressed in the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals, including targets 2.3, 2.4, 12.1, 12.2, 14.7 and 15.2.
- Where are the main areas in the country used for agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry? Which areas are particularly important for biodiversity? Which areas are particularly important for economic reasons?
- What measures are in place to ensure the sustainable management of agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry? How do these measures promote the use of biodiversity-friendly practices? How effective have these measures been? How could their effectiveness be improved? Which areas are not currently covered by any type of sustainable management?
- What are the opportunities and constraints to enhancing sustainable management? What are the potential ecological, economic, and social costs and benefits of enhancing sustainable management?
- What biodiversity-related problems could be addressed through sustainable management? How could sustainable management be used to address the main threats to biodiversity?
- Who are the actors that may be affected? How can they be involved and their needs addressed? What are the trade-offs to consider?
- What additional resources (financial, human and technical) will be required to reach the national target? How can additional resources be raised? What are the possible sources for these resources?
The monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework identifies the following indicators for this target:
- 10.1 Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture
- 10.2 Progress towards sustainable forest management
- Area of forest under sustainable management: total forest management certification by Forest Stewardship Council and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification
- Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status
- Agrobiodiversity Index
- Changes in soil organic carbon stocks
- Red List Index (wild relatives of domesticated animals)
- Red List Index (pollinating species)
- Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk of extinction
- Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area
- IPBES global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services
- FAO(2022) The State of Food and Agriculture
- FAO (2020). The State of the World’s Forests.
- FAO (2022) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2022
- FAO (2020) Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA)
Tools and guidance
- CBD Programme of Work on Agricultural Biodiversity
- CBD Programme of Work on Inland Waters
- CBD Programme of Work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity
- CBD Cross-cutting Theme on Article 8(j)
- CBD Plan of Action on Customary Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity (COP12)
- CBD Cross-cutting Theme on Biodiversity and Health
- CBD Programme of Work on Forests
- CBD Programme of Work on Drylands
- CBD Cross-cutting Theme on Sustainable Wildlife Management
- CBD decision XIII/5 (2016): Short-term Action Plan on Ecosystem Restoration.
- CBD decision VII/11 (2004): Ecosystem Approach and related guidance.
- CBD Technical Series No. 93: Voluntary guidelines for the design and effective implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction and supplementary information (2019).
- CBD Technical Series No. 79: How sectors can contribute to sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity (2014).
- CBD Technical Series No. 60: Livelihood alternatives for the unsustainable use of bushmeat (2011).
- CBD Technical Series 59: REDD-plus and Biodiversity (2011).
- CBD Technical Series No. 43: Forest Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change. A synthesis of the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems (2009).
- CBD Technical Series No. 12: Solutions for sustainable mariculture - avoiding the adverse effects of mariculture on biological diversity (2004).
- CBD decision VIII/28 (2006): Voluntary Guidelines on Biodiversity-Inclusive Impact Assessment.
- CBD decision XII/5 (Annex) (2014): Chennai guidance for the integration of biodiversity and poverty eradication.
- CBD decision XII/3 (Annex III) (2014): Voluntary Guidelines on Safeguards in Biodiversity Financing Mechanisms.
- CBD decision X/22 (2010): Plan of Action on Subnational Governments, Cities and Other Local Authorities for Biodiversity.
- CBD decision XII/23 (2014). Marine and coastal biodiversity: Impacts on marine and coastal biodiversity of anthropogenic underwater noise and ocean acidification, priority actions to achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target 10 for coral reefs and closely associated ecosystems, and marine spatial planning and training initiatives.
- FAO International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
- FAO Towards sustainable crop pollination services: Measures at field, farm and landscape scales
- FAO Tool for Agroecology Performance Evaluation (TAPE)
- FAO The 10 elements of agroecology: Guiding the transition to sustainable food and agricultural systems
- FAO Voluntary Guidelines for Sustainable Soil Management (VGSSM)
- FAO Framework for Action on Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture
- FAO Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Toolbox
- FAO Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries
- International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)
- CIFOR Criteria and Indicators (C&I) Toolbox to assess management in particular production forests where people live and work in and around the forests
- CIFOR Forest Tenure Pathways to Gender Equality: A practitioner’s guide
- SER International Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration
- FAO, SER, IUCN CEM (2023). Standards of practice to guide ecosystem restoration: A contribution to the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration.
Note from the Secretariat: This guidance material provides an overview of the target by briefly introducing key terms, highlighting some of the implications for national target setting, and providing key points and guiding questions for consideration as part of national target-setting exercises. It also identifies the adopted indicators to monitor progress and resources that could assist with national target setting and implementation. This material should be considered a work in progress, and it will be periodically updated with inputs from Parties and partner organizations in the light of experiences with its use. This information is meant to serve as a resource that Parties and others may wish to consider as they implement the Global Biodiversity Framework. It does not replace or qualify decision 15/4 or 15/5.